AutoGOJA Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis > How to Perform a Job Analysis
How to Perform a Job Analysis
There are eight major steps in completing a job analysis.
While there is
no "one, right way," the steps below are provided as a template for developing
a job analysis designed to provide a foundation for validation. This process is
adopted from the Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) process, which has
been supported in numerous EEO cases and reviewed in several textbooks
Step 1: Assemble and train a panel of qualified job experts (subject matter experts)
Job experts are qualified job incumbents who perform or supervise the target
position. The following criteria are presented as guidelines for selecting the
members of the panel. The job experts chosen should:
Collectively represent the demographics of the employee population (with respect to gender, age, race, years of experience, etc.). It is
a good idea to slightly over-sample gender and ethnic groups to
insure adequate representation in the job analysis process.
Be experienced and active in the position they represent (e.g.,
job experts should not be on probationary status or temporarily
assigned to the position). While seasoned job experts will often have
a good understanding of the position, it is also beneficial to include
relatively inexperienced job experts to integrate the "newcomer's
perspective." However, at least one-year job experience should be a
baseline requirement for job experts selected for the panel.
Include between 10% and 20% supervisors for a given position. For
example, if a seven-to-ten-person job experts panel is used, include
one to two supervisors on the panel.
Represent the various "functional areas" and/or shifts of the
position. Many positions have more than one division or "work
area" or even different shifts, where job duties and KSAPCs may
Step 2: Job experts write job duties
In this step, job experts independently write job duties performed in the target
position without providing any ratings (e.g., frequency, importance). Having
job experts independently identify duties is an important first step in the
job analysis process. This independent work - without a group or "paired"
discussion - helps insure that the final combined list of duties (which is the next
step) is as complete as possible. Job duties should usually begin with an action
word, include the process (tasks) for completing the duty, and include the work
product or outcome of the duty. For example: "Prepare correspondence using
word processing software and reference documents and deliver to clients using
Allowing multiple, independent opinions typically allows a final duty list
to be created that, after being consolidated, includes two to three times the
number of duties that any individual job experts recorded. Depending on the
complexity of the job, providing job experts with one to two hours to record
their job duties is usually sufficient.
Step 3: Consolidate duties into a master duty list
After the job experts have independently recorded the duties of the target
position, a facilitator should convene the panel and develop a master,
consolidated list that reflects the majority opinion of the group. Using a 70%
consensus rule (e.g., 7 out of 10) for this step is suggested or a lower ratio may be
used if the job analysis results will be sent in survey form to a larger job expert
sample. at this step, job duties from pre-existing job descriptions and other
suggestions or data from management should be integrated into the discussion
and added to the master list if the majority of the job experts agree.
Step 4: Write KSAPCs, physical requirements, tools & equipment, other requirements, and standards
Have the job experts repeat the process described in Step 2, but for the
KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements,
and Standards. The following definitions can be helpful for this step:
Knowledge: A knowledge is a body of information that is applied directly to the performance of a duty. For example: Knowledge of construction standards, codes, laws, and regulations.
Skill: A skill is a present, observable competence necessary to successfully perform a learned physical duty. For example: Skill to build basic wood furniture such as bookcases, tables, and benches from raw lumber.
Ability: A present competence to perform an observable duty or to perform a non-observable duty that results in a product. For example: The ability to effectively present complex technical information to students in a formal classroom setting using a variety of approaches as needed to maximize student learning.
Personal Characteristics: These are characteristics that are not as concrete as individual knowledge, skills, or abilities. Examples include "dependability," "conscientiousness," or "stress tolerance."
The Uniform Guidelines do not permit measuring abstract traits in
content-validated selection process (see Section 14C1) unless they
are clearly operationally defined in terms of observable aspects of job
behavior. For example, while the characteristic "dependability"
(if left undefined) is too abstract to directly measure in a selection
process, if it can be defined as "promptness and regularity of
attendance," which is an observable work behavior, it can be
measured. "Stress tolerance," if not clearly operationally defined, is
also too abstract for inclusion in a selection process under a content
validity approach. However, if defined as "the ability to complete
job duties in a timely and efficient manner while enduring stressful
or adverse working conditions," it is converted into an essential work
ability that is readily observable on the job.
So, if one desires
to include personal characteristics in the selection process, turn
them from abstract ideas to concrete, observable skills and abilities
that are job related.
Physical Requirements, Other Requirements, and Standards will vary greatly
between jobs. Several existing taxonomies are available - download the FREE Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis Manual for several examples of each.
Step 5: Consolidate KSAPCs, physical requirements,
tools & equipment, other requirements, and
standards into a master list
For this step, the job experts repeat the process described in Step 3, but for
the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements,
and Standards. as in Step 3, the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools
& Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards from pre-existing job
descriptions and other suggestions or data from management can be included
in the process.
Step 6: Have job experts provide ratings for duties,
KSAPCs, and physical requirements
The job experts and supervisors can provide ratings now that a final list of
duties and KSAPCs has been compiled. For job duties, job experts can provide
the following ratings (see the the FREE Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis Manual for sample rating scales):
Frequency of Performance: How frequently is the job duty
performed? daily? Weekly? This is not a requirement under the
Uniform Guidelines for content validity, but it is useful for several
practical reasons. (note, however, that it is required for criterionrelated
validity studies!) One of the useful purposes for this rating is
for determining which job duties constitute essential functions under
the americans with disabilities act (Section 1630.2[n][iii]).
Importance: How important is competent performance of the job
duty? What are the consequences if it is not done or done poorly?
The importance rating is perhaps one of the most critical ratings
that Job Experts provide. Section 14C2 of the Uniform Guidelines
states that the duties selected for a selection procedure (e.g., a
work sample test) ". should be critical work behavior(s) and/or
important work behavior(s) constituting most of the job."
Uniform Guidelines are clear that when using content validity for a
work sample test, the selection procedure can be linked to a single
critical duty ("critical" is later defined by the Uniform Guidelines
as "necessary"), or several important duties that constitute most of
For KSAPCs and Physical Requirements, job experts can rate:
Links to duties: Where is this KSaPC/Physical Requirement actually
applied on the job? What are the job duties (by duty number) where
it is used? This step is key for establishing content validity evidence.
by linking the duties to the KSaPCs and Physical Requirements, a
nexus is created showing where actual job skills (for example) are
actually applied on the job. Completing this step addresses Section
14C4 of the Uniform Guidelines.
Frequency: How often is this KSAPC/Physical Requirement
applied on the job? While it is a good idea to obtain a direct rating
from job experts on this factor, this question can also be answered
by determining the job duty with the highest frequency rating to
which the KSaPC/Physical Requirement is linked.
Importance: How important is the KSAPC/Physical Requirement
to competent job performance? This is perhaps the most important
rating in a content validity study because the Uniform Guidelines
require that a selection procedure measuring a KSAPC/Physical
Requirement should be shown to be a "necessary prerequisite" of
"critical or important work behaviors" and shown to be "used in
the performance of those duties" (Sections 14C4 and 15C5).
the Uniform Guidelines make this clear distinction between only
"important" and "critical or necessary," the importance rating scale
should take this into consideration by making a clear demarcation in
the progression of importance levels between important and critical.
A selection procedure measuring KSAPCs/Physical Requirements
should be linked to critical and/or important work duties, and
should be rated as "critical" or "necessary" by job experts.
All job experts who participated in the job analysis process can provide ratings;
however, in Step 7, using only two supervisors is sufficient for providing the
supervisor ratings. Calculating inter-rater reliability and removing outliers from the
data set can be a useful step for insuring that the raters are providing valid ratings.
After all ratings are collected, they should be reviewed for accuracy and
completeness, and then averages for each job duty and KSAPC rating should
be calculated. This should be performed before proceeding further because
supervisors will consider the rating averages in subsequent steps.
Optional step for positions with a large numbers
of incumbents: Distribute a job analysis survey to
additional job experts for ratings.
Completing the six steps above results in a completed job analysis that
represents the collective and majority opinions of the seven to ten job experts
included in the process. While including seven to ten job experts in the process
is likely to provide accurate and reliable information about a position for many
employers, increasing the job expert sample size will increase the accuracy and
reliability of the information about the position (if there are more than ten job
experts in the position).
Obtaining the opinions of additional job experts can be completed using
a job analysis survey (JaS). a JaS can be prepared by providing the duties,
KSAPCs, and Physical Requirements in survey form to the job
having the job experts rate the "content" of each, in addition to all other
standard "job-holder ratings."
For example, job experts can use the following
scale in a JaS for rating each duty:
This duty is (select one option from below) a duty that I perform.
Not at all similar to (does not describe)
Somewhat similar to (some of the objects listed and actions described
in the duty are somewhat similar to the objects and actions in the
duty performed in your job)
Similar to (most of the objects listed and actions described in the
duty are similar to the objects and actions in the duty performed
in your job)
The same as (extremely similar or exactly like)
job experts can use the following scale to rate each KSAPCs and Physical
This KSAPC/Physical Requirement is (select one option from below) a
KSAPC/Physical Requirement I apply on the job.
Not at all similar to (does not closely describe)
Somewhat similar to (somewhat describes)
Similar to (closely describes)
The same as (very accurately describes)
One potential benefit of providing the additional job expert group with a JAS
is that the additional job experts may know of other legitimate job duties,
KSAPCs, or Physical Requirements that are required for the position, but
were not identified by the original job expert group. It is suggested to provide
extra space on the JaS where the additional job experts can record and rate
additional duties, KSAPCs, and/or Physical Requirements they identify while
completing the JaS.
It is recommended to use 3.0 as the minimum average rating criteria for
these two ratings when deciding whether to include a duty or KSAPC/Physical
Requirement in a final job analysis.
Step 7: Have two supervisors review the completed
job analysis and assign supervisor ratings
After the final job duty, KSAPC, and Physical Requirements have been rated by
the job experts and the ratings have been averaged, convene two supervisors
(these supervisors may have participated in the first six steps of the process, or
can be new to the job analysis process) to assign the "Supervisor Only" job expert
ratings. The ratings that supervisors should provide for job duties include:
Percentage of Time: When considering all job duties, what
percentage of a typical incumbent's time is spent performing
this job duty? Evaluating the percentage of time that incumbents
spend on a particular duty is one of several factors that should be
considered when making essential function determinations under
the 1990 americans with disabilities act (Section 1630.2[n][iii]).
While helpful, it is not absolutely required for content validation
Best Worker: What job duties distinguish the "minimal" from the
"best" worker? Job duties that are rated high on the best Worker
rating are those that, when performed above the "bare minimum,"
distinguish the "best" performers from the "minimal." For example,
lifting boxes and occasionally helping guests with luggage may be
necessary for a hotel receptionist position. However, performing
these job duties at a level "above the minimum" will not likely make
any difference in a person's overall job performance. It would likely
be other job duties such as "greeting hotel guests and completing
check-in/check-out procedures in a timely and friendly fashion"
that would distinguish between the "minimal" and the "best"
workers for this job.
The average rating on this scale can provide
guidance for using a work sample type of content validity selection
procedure on a pass/fail, ranking, or banding basis (see Section
14C9 of the Uniform Guidelines). it is not necessary to obtain this
rating for job duties unless the employer desires to validate a work
sample type of selection procedure (i.e., a selection procedure that
relies on linkages to job duties and not necessarily KSAPCs).
Fundamental: How fundamental is this job duty to the purpose
of the job? Would the position be fundamentally different if this
job duty was not required for performance? Handcuffing suspects
is fundamental to the job of police officer. Rescuing victims is
fundamental to the firefighter job. Fundamental job duties are duties
that constitute "essential functions" under the 1990 Americans
with Disabilities Act (this rating is helpful, but not necessary for
validation.) A job duty may be considered fundamental to the job
in any of the following ways:
- the duty is frequently performed (check the Frequency rating)
and/or the proportion of work time spent on it is significant
(check the average Percentage of Time rating); or
- the consequence to the purpose of the job is severe if the job duty
is not performed or if it is performed poorly (check the average
importance rating); or
- removing the job duty would fundamentally change the job - in
other words, the duty is fundamental because the reason the job
exists is to perform the duty; or
- there are a limited number of employees available among whom
the performance of this job duty can be distributed; or
- the duty is so highly specialized that the incumbent was placed
in the job because of their expertise or ability to perform this
particular job duty.
Assignable (assignable to others): Can this job duty be readily
assigned to another incumbent without changing the fundamental
nature of the position? in such instances, the job duty should not
be considered as an "essential function" under the 1990 Americans
with Disabilities Act. For example, a job duty can be determined
to be fundamental (using the "fundamental duty" rating) and
hence also "essential" under the Americans
with Disabilities Act; however, if such job duty can be readily assigned to another
employee without changing the fundamental nature of the job, the
job duty can be re-designated as not essential.
Job duties which are frequently performed or which take up a large proportion of work
time and which are important or critical, probably are not easily
assigned to others. duties which occur infrequently and/or which
require a small percentage of work time can sometimes be assumed
by others, regardless of how important or unimportant they are.
For KSAPCs and Physical Requirements, supervisors can rate:
Minimum v. Helpful Qualifications: Is this KSAPC/Physical
Requirement a necessity for the position? Or, while possibly helpful
to the performance of the job, is it an absolute requirement? This
rating can help determine which KSAPCs/Physical Requirements
should be included in a selection process. Minimum qualifications
are those that the applicant or candidate must have prior to entry
into the position; helpful qualifications can still be included in the
selection process (if they meet the other requirements discussed
herein), but are not absolute necessities prior to entry.
Level needed for success (for job knowledges only): What level of this
job knowledge is required on the first day of the job? Total, complete
mastery? General familiarity? The data from these ratings are useful for
choosing the job knowledges that should be included in a written job
knowledge test (see Section 14C4 of the Uniform Guidelines for specific
requirements for measuring job knowledge in a selection process.)
Level needed upon entry: How much of this KSAPC/Physical
Requirement will be required on the first day of the job? All? Some?
none? Will some on-the-job training be provided, or will candidates
be required to bring all of this KSaPC/Physical Requirement with
them on the first day of the job, with no additional levels attained
after hire? This rating provides direction on which KSAPCs/Physical
Requirements to screen in a selection process. This is a requirement
of the Uniform Guidelines (Section 14C1).
Step 8: Prepare final job analysis document,
including descriptive statistics for ratings
After compiling the job expert and supervisor rating data, a report should
be compiled that provides descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard
deviations) for each rated item. The final data (e.g., job duties, KSAPCs, etc.)
can be entered directly into the job analysis document, along with the means
and standard deviations that accompany each, to compile a final job analysis
for a position.
AutoGOJA Job Analysis Software is a hosted software solution that automates many steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Qualified organizations may sign up for a FREE Basic Job Analysis account. This FREE service will allow an organization to complete a job analysis for one position. The account may be upgraded to allow for analyses to be performed on subsequent job titles.
The GOJA Manual is a manual (paper and pencil) solution that leads that leads an HR practician through the steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Organizations opting to perform a manual job analysis may download our free Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis form. This 99-page job analysis booklet is free to download, print and use (without modification) for any number of job analyses.
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