AutoGOJA Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis > What are KSAPCs?
What are KSAPCs (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities & Personal Charateristics)?
A job analysis consists of a thorough analysis of the job duties and knowledges, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics (KSAPCs) required for success in a certain position. A selection plan extracts from the job analysis the key, essential
KSAPCs and/or job duties that should be measured by the selection process.
The steps for completing a job analysis are available at this site, but what, exactly, are KSAPCs as they pertain to performing a job analysis?
Knowledge: A knowledge is a body of information that is applied directly to the performance of a duty. For example: Knowledge of construction standards, codes, laws, and regulations.
Skill: A skill is a present, observable competence necessary to successfully perform a learned physical duty. For example: Skill to build basic wood furniture such as bookcases, tables, and benches from raw lumber.
Ability: A present competence to perform an observable duty or to perform a non-observable duty that results in a product. For example: The ability to effectively present complex technical information to students in a formal classroom setting using a variety of approaches as needed to maximize student learning.
Personal Characteristics: These are characteristics that are not as concrete as individual knowledge, skills, or abilities. Examples include "dependability," "conscientiousness," or "stress tolerance."
The Uniform Guidelines do not permit measuring abstract traits in content-validated selection process (see Section 14C1) unless they are clearly operationally defined in terms of observable aspects of job behavior. For example, while the characteristic "dependability" (if left undefined) is too abstract to directly measure in a selection process, if it can be defined as "promptness and regularity of attendance," which is an observable work behavior, it can be measured.
"Stress tolerance," if not clearly operationally defined, is also too abstract for inclusion in a selection process under a content validity approach. However, if defined as "the ability to complete job duties in a timely and efficient manner while enduring stressful or adverse working conditions," it is converted into an essential work ability that is readily observable on the job.
So, if one desires to include personal characteristics in the selection process (of which the job analysis is a part,) they must turn them from abstract ideas to concrete, observable skills and abilities that are job related.
AutoGOJA Job Analysis Software is a hosted software solution that automates many steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Qualified organizations may sign up for a FREE Basic Job Analysis account. This FREE service will allow an organization to complete a job analysis for one position. The account may be upgraded to allow for analyses to be performed on subsequent job titles.
The GOJA Manual is a manual (paper and pencil) solution that leads that leads an HR practician through the steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Organizations opting to perform a manual job analysis may download our free Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis form. This 99-page job analysis booklet is free to download, print and use (without modification) for any number of job analyses.
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